Virtual machine analysis

For the virtual machine analysis part, we will explain it with a simple crackme.

The corresponding crackme can be downloaded here: [FuelVM.exe] (https://github.com/ctf-wiki/ctf-challenges/blob/master/reverse/vm/fuelvm/FuelVM.exe)

The corresponding keygenme can be downloaded here: fuelvm_keygen.py

The corresponding IDA database can be downloaded here: FuelVM.idb

The author of this question designed a simple virtual machine with multiple instructions. We used IDA for analysis. For the sake of convenience, I renamed some of the disassembled variables.

Run the program

We run the program FuelVM.exe. The interface is as follows


In this interface, we see the right two input boxes, one for entering the username Name and the other for entering the key Key. There are two buttons, Go for submitting input, and Exit for exiting. program.

Get user input

Then we can start from here. The program wants to get user input, an API that needs to be called is GetDlgItemTextA()

UINT GetDlgItemTextA(

  HWND  hDlg,

  int   nIDDlgItem,

  LPSTR lpString,

  int   cchMax


The obtained input string will be saved in lpString. Then we can open IDA to find the place with the cross reference GetDlgItemTextA().

`asm .text:00401142 push 0Ch ; cchMax

.text: 00401144 push offset inputName; lpString .text:00401149 push 3F8h ; nIDDlgItem

.text:0040114E push [ebp+hWnd] ; hDlg

.text:00401151 call GetDlgItemTextA

.text:00401156 push 0Ch ; cchMax

.text: 00401158 push offset inputKey; lpString .text:0040115D push 3F9h ; nIDDlgItem

.text:00401162 push [ebp+hWnd] ; hDlg

.text:00401165 call GetDlgItemTextA

.text:0040116A mov var_a, 0

.text:00401171 call process_input

.text:00401176 jmp short locExit

As above, IDA only calls `GetDlgItemTextA` here and calls it twice to get `inputName` and `inputKey` respectively. Then initializes a variable to 0, because it doesn't understand the role of this variable, so rename it to `var_a` first. After a function call and jmp jump. Because the code of the jmp jump position is some code to exit the program, so we can conclude that the above call is a function that calls the user input. So the position of jmp is heavy. Named `locExit`, the function is renamed to `process_input`.

## Handling user input

We enter the `process_input` function, which simply handles the input string very simply.


  result = strlength((int)inputName);

  if ( v1 >= 7 )                                // v1 = length of inputName


    *(_DWORD *)&lenOfName = v1;

    result = strlength((int)inputKey);

    if ( v2 >= 7 )                              // v2 = length of inputKey


      i = 0;



        inputName[i] ^= i;



      while ( i <= *(_DWORD *)&lenOfName );

      unk_4031CE = i;

      dword_4031C8 = dword_4035FF;

initVM ();
initVM ();
__debugbreak ();
      JUMPOUT(*(_DWORD *)&word_4012CE);



  return result;

The first is the strlength() function. The function uses cld; repne scasb; not ecx; dec ecx to calculate the string length and save the result in ecx. The assembly basics are not introduced. So we Rename the function to strlength

`asm .text:004011C2 arg_0 = dword ptr 8


.text:004011C2 push ebp

.text:004011C3 mov ebp, esp

.text:004011C5 mov edi, [ebp+arg_0]

.text: 004011C8 under ecx, ecx .text:004011CA sub al, al

.text:004011CC not ecx

.text:004011CE cld

.text:004011CF repne scasb

.text:004011D1 not ecx

.text:004011D3 dec ecx

.text:004011D4 leave

.text: 004011D5 retn 4 .text:004011D5 strlength endp

In the pseudo-C code generated by IDA, there are `v1` and `v2`, I have annotated it, you can see the assembly, which is compared with `cx` and `7`, and `ecx` is a string. Length, so we can know that the input requirements here are: *inputName and inputKey are not less than 7*

When the lengths of `inputName` and `inputKey` are not less than 7, then you can make a simple transformation on the input. Here is a loop


      i = 0;



        inputName[i] ^= i;



      while ( i <= *(_DWORD *)&lenOfName );

The corresponding python code is

def obfuscate(username):

    s = ""

    for i in range(len(username)):

        s += chr(ord(username[i]) ^ i)

    return s

After the function is assigned to some variables (these are not important, just ignore it.)

Registering SEH

`asm .text:004012B5 push offset seh_handler

.text:004012BA push large dword ptr fs:0

.text:004012C1 mov large fs:0, esp

.text:004012C8 call initVM

.text:004012CD int 3 ; Trap to Debugger

`initVM` is done by some virtual machine initialization before starting (in fact, it is the initial value of some registers and related parts), we will discuss later. Here we are concerned about the SEH part. Here is registered a SEH handle, exception I renamed the handler to `seh_handler` and then manually triggered the exception using `int 3`. In the `seh_handler` location, IDA did not correctly identify the corresponding code.

.text:004012D7 seh_handler db 64h ; DATA XREF: process_input+7Do

.text:004012D8 dd 58Fh, 0C4830000h, 13066804h, 0FF640040h, 35h, 25896400h

.text:004012D8 dd 0

.text:004012F4 dd 1B8h, 0F7C93300h, 0F7C033F1h, 0FFC483E1h, 8F64FDEBh

.text:004012F4 dd 5, 4C48300h, 40133068h, 35FF6400h, 0

.text:0040131C dd 258964h, 33000000h, 33198BC9h, 83E1F7C0h, 0FDEBFFC4h

.text:0040131C dd 58F64h, 83000000h, 5E6804C4h, 64004013h, 35FFh, 89640000h

.text:0040131C dd 25h, 0C033CC00h, 0C483E1F7h, 83FDEBFFh, 4035FF05h, 0D8B0200h

.text:0040131C dd 4035FFh, 3000B1FFh, 58F0040h, 4031C8h, 31C83D80h, 750A0040h

.text:0040131C dd 0B1FF4176h, 403000h, 31C8058Fh, 3D800040h, 4031C8h

We can click the corresponding position and press the `c` key to convert the data into code for identification. (We need to press the c key multiple times to convert), and get the following code.

As follows, in the `seh_handler` position, a similar method is used to register an exception handler located at `401306h`, and a `x0 ecx, ecx; div ecx` is manually triggered by a `divide 0 exception`. and at `loc_401301 `Location, this is an anti-debugging trick, `jmp loc_401301+2` will cause `EIP` to turn to the middle of an instruction, making it impossible to continue debugging. So we can remove the `nop` of the `00401301~00401306` part, then `00401306`Location creates a new function `seh_handler2`

seh_handler: ; DATA XREF: process_input+7Do

.text:004012D7 pop large dword ptr fs:0

.text:004012DE add esp, 4

.text:004012E1 push 401306h

.text:004012E6 push large dword ptr fs:0

.text:004012ED mov large fs:0, esp

.text:004012F4 mov eax, 1

.text: 004012F9 xor ecx, ecx .text: 004012FB div ecx .text:004012FD xor eax, eax

.text: 004012FF mul ecx .text:00401301

.text:00401301 loc_401301: ; CODE XREF: .text:00401304j

.text:00401301 add esp, 0FFFFFFFFh

.text:00401304 jmp short near ptr loc_401301+2

.text:00401306 ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

.text:00401306 pop large dword ptr fs:0

.text:0040130D add esp, 4

.text:00401310 push 401330h

.text:00401315 push large dword ptr fs:0

.text:0040131C mov large fs:0, esp

.text: 00401323 xor ecx, ecx .text: 00401325 mov ebx, [ecx] .text:00401327 xor eax, eax

.text:00401329 mul ecx

Similarly, `401330h` is renamed to `seh_handler3`, and `40135Eh` is the last registered exception handler. We can speculate that this is the real main function of the virtual machine, so we renamed `40135Eh` to `vm_main`. (For the SEH and anti-debugging part, you can recommend yourself to go to the dynamic debugging to figure out)

## Restore stack balance

We created a `vm_main` function (you need to create a function after renaming, IDA can recognize it), then press `F5` to prompt the failure. The reason for the failure is due to the stack imbalance. So we can click on the IDA menu item. `Options-&gt;General` check the `stack pointer` on the right side. This will display the corresponding stack pointer.

.text:004017F2 000 jmp vm_main

.text:004017F7 ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

.text:004017F7 000 push 0 ; uType

.text:004017F9 004 push offset aError ; "Error"

.text:004017FE 008 push offset Text ; "The key is wrong."

.text:00401803 00C push 0 ; hWnd

.text:00401805 010 call MessageBoxA


.text:0040180A locret_40180A: ; CODE XREF: vm_main+492j

.text:0040180A 000 leave

.text:0040180B -04 leave

.text:0040180C -08 leave

.text:0040180D -0C leave

.text:0040180E -10 leave

.text:0040180F -14 leave

.text:00401810 -18 leave

.text: 00401811 -1C retn .text:00401811 vm_main endp ; sp-analysis failed

We come to the bottom to show the unbalanced position. The top `jmp vm_main` indicates that the virtual machine is executing a loop internally. The call to `MessageBoxA` is to display the last pop-up error message. At the location of `locret_40180A`, after much The leave stack is heavily unbalanced, so we need to manually restore the stack balance.

It&#39;s also very simple. The `0040180A` position has been stack balanced (000), so we only need to change the `leave` to `retn`.

.text:0040180A locret_40180A: ; CODE XREF: vm_main+492j

.text: 0040180A 000 retn .text:0040180B ; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

.text:0040180B 004 leave

.text:0040180C 004 leave

.text:0040180D 004 leave

Then you can find that `vm_main` can generate pseudo C code in F5.

## Virtual machine instruction analysis

To be honest, the analysis part of the virtual machine is a relatively tedious restore process. You need to compare the operations of each small part to determine what kind of instruction is this, which registers are used. Like this crackme, vm is a `Fetch-decode-execute` loop. The `decode` procedure gives us the most information. Different instructions are here, according to their respective `opcode`, using the `if-else if-else` branch. Differentiate. The actual restore process is not complicated, but it may be tedious because of the number of instructions implemented by the virtual machine.

The final analysis results are as follows:

| opcode | value |

| ------ | ----- |

| push   | 0x0a  |

| pop    | 0x0b  |

| mov    | 0x0c  |

| cmp    | 0x0d  |

| inc    | 0x0e  |

| dec    | 0x0f  |

| and    | 0x1b  |

| or     | 0x1c  |

| chorus 0x1d |
| check  | 0xff  |

Let&#39;s look at the analyzed `initVM` function.


int initVM()


  int result; // eax@1

r1 = 0;
r2 = 0;
r3 = 0;
  result = (unsigned __int8)inputName[(unsigned __int8)cur_index];

  r4 = (unsigned __int8)inputName[(unsigned __int8)cur_index];

  vm_sp = 0x32;

  vm_pc = 0;

  vm_flags_zf = 0;

  vm_flags_sf = 0;

++ cur_index;
  return result;


There are 4 general-purpose registers (r1/r2/r3/r4), 1 sp pointer and 1 pc pointer, flags zf and sf. var_a which we did not know before. It is renamed to cur_index, which points to the character index currently being processed by inputName.

We will not say more about the multiple instructions implemented by the VM. Let's focus on the operation of the check part.

int __fastcall check(int a1)


char v1; // al @ 1
  int result; // eax@4

v1 = r1;
  if ( (unsigned __int8)r1 < 0x21u )

    v1 = r1 + 0x21;

  LOBYTE(a1) = cur_index;

if (v1 == inputKey [a1])

    if ( (unsigned __int8)cur_index >= (unsigned __int8)lenOfName )

      result = MessageBoxA(0, aGoodJobNowWrit, Caption, 0);


      result = initVM();




    result = MessageBoxA(0, Text, Caption, 0);


  return result;


If the value in r1 is equal to inputKey[cur_index], then it will continue to determine whether the entire inputName has been checked. If there is no error and the comparison ends, then Good job! Now write a keygen.Message box. Otherwise it will continue to initVM to enter the next round of loops. (Of course, the pop-up message box prompts an error.)

cur_index will increment by 1 in initVM, then remember to execute initVM twice in process_input. Because there are 2 times initVM, so the first 2 of our inputKey Can be any character.

      unk_4031CE = i;

      opcode = vm_pc;

initVM ();
initVM ();
__debugbreak ();
      JUMPOUT(*(_DWORD *)&word_4012CE);

So after we analyzed the entire virtual machine, we can start writing Keygen.

The corresponding keygenme can be downloaded here: fuelvm_keygen.py

$ python2 fuelvm_keygen.py ctf-wiki

[*] Password for user 'ctf-wiki' is: 4mRC*TKJI

The corresponding IDA database can be downloaded here: FuelVM.idb