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填充规则

正如我们之前所说,在分组加密中,明文的长度往往并不满足要求,需要进行 padding,而如何 padding 目前也已经有了不少的规定。

常见的 填充规则 如下。需要注意的是,即使消息的长度是块大小的整数倍,仍然需要填充。

一般来说,如果在解密之后发现 Padding 不正确,则往往会抛出异常。我们也因此可以知道 Paddig 是否正确。

Pad with bytes all of the same value as the number of padding bytes (PKCS5 padding)

举例子如下

DES INPUT BLOCK  = f  o  r  _  _  _  _  _
(IN HEX)           66 6F 72 05 05 05 05 05
KEY              = 01 23 45 67 89 AB CD EF
DES OUTPUT BLOCK = FD 29 85 C9 E8 DF 41 40

Pad with 0x80 followed by zero bytes (OneAndZeroes Padding)

举例子如下

DES INPUT BLOCK  = f  o  r  _  _  _  _  _
(IN HEX)           66 6F 72 80 00 00 00 00
KEY              = 01 23 45 67 89 AB CD EF
DES OUTPUT BLOCK = BE 62 5D 9F F3 C6 C8 40

这里其实就是和 md5 和 sha1 的 padding 差不多。

Pad with zeroes except make the last byte equal to the number of padding bytes

举例子如下

DES INPUT BLOCK  = f  o  r  _  _  _  _  _
(IN HEX)           66 6f 72 00 00 00 00 05
KEY              = 01 23 45 67 89 AB CD EF
DES OUTPUT BLOCK = 91 19 2C 64 B5 5C 5D B8

Pad with zero (null) characters

举例子如下

DES INPUT BLOCK  = f  o  r  _  _  _  _  _
(IN HEX)           66 6f 72 00 00 00 00 00
KEY              = 01 23 45 67 89 AB CD EF
DES OUTPUT BLOCK = 9E 14 FB 96 C5 FE EB 75

Pad with spaces

举例子如下

DES INPUT BLOCK  = f  o  r  _  _  _  _  _
(IN HEX)           66 6f 72 20 20 20 20 20
KEY              = 01 23 45 67 89 AB CD EF
DES OUTPUT BLOCK = E3 FF EC E5 21 1F 35 25

2018 上海市大学生网络安全大赛 aessss

有时候可以针对一些使用不当的 Padding 进行攻击。这里以 2018 上海市大学生网络安全大赛的一道题目为例:

题目脚本如下:

import random
import sys
import string
from hashlib import sha256
import SocketServer
from Crypto.Cipher import AES
from secret import FLAG, IV, KEY


class Task(SocketServer.BaseRequestHandler):
    def proof_of_work(self):
        proof = ''.join(
            [random.choice(string.ascii_letters+string.digits) for _ in xrange(20)])
        # print proof
        digest = sha256(proof).hexdigest()
        self.request.send("sha256(XXXX+%s) == %s\n" % (proof[4:], digest))
        self.request.send('Give me XXXX:')
        x = self.request.recv(10)
        x = x.strip()
        if len(x) != 4 or sha256(x+proof[4:]).hexdigest() != digest:
            return False
        return True

    def pad(self, s):
        s += (256 - len(s)) * chr(256 - len(s))
        ret = ['\x00' for _ in range(256)]
        for index, pos in enumerate(self.s_box):
            ret[pos] = s[index]
        return ''.join(ret)

    def unpad(self, s):
        ret = ['\x00' for _ in range(256)]
        for index, pos in enumerate(self.invs_box):
            ret[pos] = s[index]
        return ''.join(ret[0:-ord(ret[-1])])

    s_box = [
        0x63, 0x7C, 0x77, 0x7B, 0xF2, 0x6B, 0x6F, 0xC5, 0x30, 0x01, 0x67, 0x2B, 0xFE, 0xD7, 0xAB, 0x76,
        0xCA, 0x82, 0xC9, 0x7D, 0xFA, 0x59, 0x47, 0xF0, 0xAD, 0xD4, 0xA2, 0xAF, 0x9C, 0xA4, 0x72, 0xC0,
        0xB7, 0xFD, 0x93, 0x26, 0x36, 0x3F, 0xF7, 0xCC, 0x34, 0xA5, 0xE5, 0xF1, 0x71, 0xD8, 0x31, 0x15,
        0x04, 0xC7, 0x23, 0xC3, 0x18, 0x96, 0x05, 0x9A, 0x07, 0x12, 0x80, 0xE2, 0xEB, 0x27, 0xB2, 0x75,
        0x09, 0x83, 0x2C, 0x1A, 0x1B, 0x6E, 0x5A, 0xA0, 0x52, 0x3B, 0xD6, 0xB3, 0x29, 0xE3, 0x2F, 0x84,
        0x53, 0xD1, 0x00, 0xED, 0x20, 0xFC, 0xB1, 0x5B, 0x6A, 0xCB, 0xBE, 0x39, 0x4A, 0x4C, 0x58, 0xCF,
        0xD0, 0xEF, 0xAA, 0xFB, 0x43, 0x4D, 0x33, 0x85, 0x45, 0xF9, 0x02, 0x7F, 0x50, 0x3C, 0x9F, 0xA8,
        0x51, 0xA3, 0x40, 0x8F, 0x92, 0x9D, 0x38, 0xF5, 0xBC, 0xB6, 0xDA, 0x21, 0x10, 0xFF, 0xF3, 0xD2,
        0xCD, 0x0C, 0x13, 0xEC, 0x5F, 0x97, 0x44, 0x17, 0xC4, 0xA7, 0x7E, 0x3D, 0x64, 0x5D, 0x19, 0x73,
        0x60, 0x81, 0x4F, 0xDC, 0x22, 0x2A, 0x90, 0x88, 0x46, 0xEE, 0xB8, 0x14, 0xDE, 0x5E, 0x0B, 0xDB,
        0xE0, 0x32, 0x3A, 0x0A, 0x49, 0x06, 0x24, 0x5C, 0xC2, 0xD3, 0xAC, 0x62, 0x91, 0x95, 0xE4, 0x79,
        0xE7, 0xC8, 0x37, 0x6D, 0x8D, 0xD5, 0x4E, 0xA9, 0x6C, 0x56, 0xF4, 0xEA, 0x65, 0x7A, 0xAE, 0x08,
        0xBA, 0x78, 0x25, 0x2E, 0x1C, 0xA6, 0xB4, 0xC6, 0xE8, 0xDD, 0x74, 0x1F, 0x4B, 0xBD, 0x8B, 0x8A,
        0x70, 0x3E, 0xB5, 0x66, 0x48, 0x03, 0xF6, 0x0E, 0x61, 0x35, 0x57, 0xB9, 0x86, 0xC1, 0x1D, 0x9E,
        0xE1, 0xF8, 0x98, 0x11, 0x69, 0xD9, 0x8E, 0x94, 0x9B, 0x1E, 0x87, 0xE9, 0xCE, 0x55, 0x28, 0xDF,
        0x8C, 0xA1, 0x89, 0x0D, 0xBF, 0xE6, 0x42, 0x68, 0x41, 0x99, 0x2D, 0x0F, 0xB0, 0x54, 0xBB, 0x16
    ]

    invs_box = [
        0x52, 0x09, 0x6A, 0xD5, 0x30, 0x36, 0xA5, 0x38, 0xBF, 0x40, 0xA3, 0x9E, 0x81, 0xF3, 0xD7, 0xFB,
        0x7C, 0xE3, 0x39, 0x82, 0x9B, 0x2F, 0xFF, 0x87, 0x34, 0x8E, 0x43, 0x44, 0xC4, 0xDE, 0xE9, 0xCB,
        0x54, 0x7B, 0x94, 0x32, 0xA6, 0xC2, 0x23, 0x3D, 0xEE, 0x4C, 0x95, 0x0B, 0x42, 0xFA, 0xC3, 0x4E,
        0x08, 0x2E, 0xA1, 0x66, 0x28, 0xD9, 0x24, 0xB2, 0x76, 0x5B, 0xA2, 0x49, 0x6D, 0x8B, 0xD1, 0x25,
        0x72, 0xF8, 0xF6, 0x64, 0x86, 0x68, 0x98, 0x16, 0xD4, 0xA4, 0x5C, 0xCC, 0x5D, 0x65, 0xB6, 0x92,
        0x6C, 0x70, 0x48, 0x50, 0xFD, 0xED, 0xB9, 0xDA, 0x5E, 0x15, 0x46, 0x57, 0xA7, 0x8D, 0x9D, 0x84,
        0x90, 0xD8, 0xAB, 0x00, 0x8C, 0xBC, 0xD3, 0x0A, 0xF7, 0xE4, 0x58, 0x05, 0xB8, 0xB3, 0x45, 0x06,
        0xD0, 0x2C, 0x1E, 0x8F, 0xCA, 0x3F, 0x0F, 0x02, 0xC1, 0xAF, 0xBD, 0x03, 0x01, 0x13, 0x8A, 0x6B,
        0x3A, 0x91, 0x11, 0x41, 0x4F, 0x67, 0xDC, 0xEA, 0x97, 0xF2, 0xCF, 0xCE, 0xF0, 0xB4, 0xE6, 0x73,
        0x96, 0xAC, 0x74, 0x22, 0xE7, 0xAD, 0x35, 0x85, 0xE2, 0xF9, 0x37, 0xE8, 0x1C, 0x75, 0xDF, 0x6E,
        0x47, 0xF1, 0x1A, 0x71, 0x1D, 0x29, 0xC5, 0x89, 0x6F, 0xB7, 0x62, 0x0E, 0xAA, 0x18, 0xBE, 0x1B,
        0xFC, 0x56, 0x3E, 0x4B, 0xC6, 0xD2, 0x79, 0x20, 0x9A, 0xDB, 0xC0, 0xFE, 0x78, 0xCD, 0x5A, 0xF4,
        0x1F, 0xDD, 0xA8, 0x33, 0x88, 0x07, 0xC7, 0x31, 0xB1, 0x12, 0x10, 0x59, 0x27, 0x80, 0xEC, 0x5F,
        0x60, 0x51, 0x7F, 0xA9, 0x19, 0xB5, 0x4A, 0x0D, 0x2D, 0xE5, 0x7A, 0x9F, 0x93, 0xC9, 0x9C, 0xEF,
        0xA0, 0xE0, 0x3B, 0x4D, 0xAE, 0x2A, 0xF5, 0xB0, 0xC8, 0xEB, 0xBB, 0x3C, 0x83, 0x53, 0x99, 0x61,
        0x17, 0x2B, 0x04, 0x7E, 0xBA, 0x77, 0xD6, 0x26, 0xE1, 0x69, 0x14, 0x63, 0x55, 0x21, 0x0C, 0x7D
    ]

    def encrypt(self, msg):
        cipher = AES.new(KEY, AES.MODE_CBC, IV)
        return cipher.encrypt(msg).encode('hex')

    def handle(self):
        if not self.proof_of_work():
            return
        self.request.settimeout(15)
        req = self.request
        flag_len = len(FLAG)
        assert(flag_len == 33)
        self.flag = self.pad(FLAG)
        assert(len(self.flag) == 256)

        while True:
            req.sendall(
                'Welcome to AES(WXH) encrypt system.\n1. get encrypted flag.\n2. pad flag.\n3.Do some encrypt.\nYour choice:')
            cmd = req.recv(2).strip()
            try:
                cmd = int(cmd)
            except ValueError:
                cmd = 0
            if cmd == 1:
                enc = self.encrypt(self.flag)
                req.sendall('Here is the encrypted flag: 0x%s\n' % enc)
            elif cmd == 2:
                req.sendall('Pad me something:')
                self.flag = self.unpad(self.flag)[
                    :flag_len] + req.recv(1024).strip()
                assert(len(self.flag) <= 256)
                self.flag = self.pad(self.flag)
                req.sendall('Done.\n')
            elif cmd == 3:
                req.sendall('What do you want to encrypt:')
                msg = self.pad(req.recv(1024).strip())
                assert(len(msg) <= 256)
                enc = self.encrypt(msg)
                req.sendall('Here is the encrypted message: 0x%s\n' % enc)
            else:
                req.sendall('Do not lose heart~ !% Once WXH AK IOI 2019 can Solved! WXH is the first in the tianxia!')
                req.close()
                return


class ThreadedServer(SocketServer.ThreadingMixIn, SocketServer.TCPServer):
    pass


if __name__ == "__main__":
    HOST, PORT = '0.0.0.0', 23333
    print 'Run in port:23333'
    server = ThreadedServer((HOST, PORT), Task)
    server.allow_reuse_address = True
    server.serve_forever()

分析

这个题目问题出在 padding 的时候,由于不足 256 位要进行 padding,padding 的字节也就是缺的字节数,但是如果明文够 256 字节,那么按照代码逻辑就不进行 padding:

def pad(self, s):
        s += (256 - len(s)) * chr(256 - len(s))
        ret = ['\x00' for _ in range(256)]
        for index, pos in enumerate(self.s_box):
            ret[pos] = s[index]
        return ''.join(ret)

最大的问题出在 unpad 上,unpad 没有进行检查,仅仅通过最后一个字节来判断填充的字节数。

 def unpad(self, s):
        ret = ['\x00' for _ in range(256)]
        for index, pos in enumerate(self.invs_box):
            ret[pos] = s[index]
        return ''.join(ret[0:-ord(ret[-1])])

我们可以通过篡改最后一个字节来控制去掉的 padding 字节数。

利用

  1. 选择 choice2,追加 256-33 =223字节,使当前 flag 不需要填充,追加的最后一个字节设置成 chr(256-32)

  2. 服务器对 flag 追加我们的信息,并进行 s 盒替换,结果赋给类中的 flag 变量。

  3. 我们再次选择 choice2,这里由于我们需要追加,服务器会将类中的 flag 变量取出进行逆 S 盒替换和 unpad,这样按照这个 unpad 算法会把后面 224 字节的全部当成 padding去掉,明文剩下了真正 flag 的前32位。

  4. 我们此时输入一个字符 i,那么此时加密的对象就是 flag[:32]+i

  5. 选择 choice1 对当前 flag 加密,控制 i 进行爆破,如果得到的密文和最初的 flag 加密的密文一样,就得到了 flag 的最后一个字节。

  6. 逐字节爆破,直至获取全部的 flag。

exp 如下:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from hashlib import sha256
import socket
import string
import itertools
HOST='106.75.13.64'
PORT=54321
sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
sock.connect((HOST, PORT))
def brute_force(pad, shavalue):
    for str in itertools.product(string.ascii_letters + string.digits, repeat=4):
        str=''.join(str)
        if sha256(str + pad).hexdigest() == shavalue:
            print str
            return str
def choice1():
    sock.send("1\n")
    result=sock.recv(1024).strip()[30:]
    sock.recv(1024).strip()
    return result
def choice2(pad):
    sock.send("2\n")
    sock.recv(1024).strip()
    sock.send(pad+"\n")
    sock.recv(1024).strip()
    sock.recv(1024).strip()
def choice3(str):
    sock.send("3\n")
    sock.recv(1024).strip()
    sock.send(str+"\n")
    result=sock.recv(1024).strip()[33:]
    sock.recv(1024).strip()
    return result
content = sock.recv(1024).strip()
pad=content[12:12+16]
hash=content[33:33+64]
sock.recv(1024).strip()
sock.send(str(brute_force(pad,hash))+"\n")
print sock.recv(1024).strip()
flag_enc=choice1()
flag=""
for i in range(33):
    a = ''.join(['a' for _ in range(223)])
    a = a[:-1] + chr(224+i)
    for c in string.printable:
        print c+flag
        choice2(a)
        choice2(c+flag)
        if choice1() == flag_enc:
            flag=c+flag
            print "success:",flag
            break

flag{H4ve_fun_w1th_p4d_and_unp4d}


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